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by Fioravante BOSCO

"This is a strange history" - affirmed in December 1975 Luisa Sangiuolo in a note to the reader in the work "Brigantaggio nella provincia di Benevento 1860-1880" - "this is a strange history that, in a province shows the big personalities of Risorgimento but in a different way from past hagiography". "But in reality Risorgimento in the south of Italy was a continuation of bands, tricolour flags in the wind, (Italy and Vittorio Emanuele), flowers in the rifle mouths. Te Deum in the churches and applauses in the square?" - Ludovico Greco asked himself in 1975 in his essay "Piemontisi, Briganti e Maccaroni" - "so they taught it" - he answered - "made in this same way at school, they will teach it. Risorgimento (we can borrow, on the contrary, the most current definition of the hagiographers: The epic deeds of Risorgimento) was always seen and told as the winners wanted: the winners were good the losers bad. But there is another Risorgimento: we know it thanks to evidences of those people who fought against it and lost; today we can look with demystifying sincerity to the events following the expedition of the Thousand and the Unity of Italy. "The beneventani" - Sangiuolo notices - "soon became aware that GARIBALDI is not the poverty deliverer, CAVOUR is not the assertor of the free church in a free state, even if he gives the start to a religious persecution and to a hard print censorship, VITTORIO EMANUELE is not the gentleman king, if he sends to death his opposers, without proving their fault". "There is a Risorgimento" - Greco says - "done of treasons, of mournings, blood, horror, pain, cruelty, savagery. On one hand there were the gentlemen and the liberals and on the other the reactionary men". - Greco asks - "this was the time of the Brigandas: street outlas or guerrillas? Fighters of a rural riot or gangs of criminals?" - Sangiuolo says - "the low people supplies a high contingent to the partisan bands of FRANCESCO BORBONE, in the hope to see recognized his elementary rights and more tolerable conditions of life. "Both the two Risorgimento" - Greco says - "that of the winners and that of the defeated are equivalent. The nation was born with difficulty from this opposite but bloody, raw and ferocious torment done of blood and tears". - But Sangiuolo adds strongly - "the war with Piedmonteses ends with a defeat. After 1870 the big migration toward contries of northern America begins in searching of a workplace that the three neighbouroods (of the province of Benevento), pauperized by a very greedy taxation are not able to assure. The province of Benevento, born by the democratic passion of the citoyen Salvatore Rampone, ingloriously is positioned to the last places of the national place lists for income, quality of life, occupation etc.: alwaijs behind the lines [Cfr. Antonio De Lucia - il Sannio da ritrovare - 1996] it is still waiting for the solution of its economic problems that brigandage denounced. Times (1860-1975-2000) would be mature".




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